M1841 6-pounder field gun
When mustered into Federal service on July 16,1861, Taylor's Battery was equipped with four M1841 6-pounder field guns and two 12-pounder field howitzers. They were also given six caissons, a battery wagon, and a battery forge. The 6-pounder field gun was a smoothbore gun that was used by both sides early in the war. Being an obsolete weapon due to improvements made in the 1850's the 6-pounder field gun was replaced by the Napoleon and 3-inch Ordnance rifle. A field howitzer is a cannon with a short barrel made to fire large shells or balls using only a small amount of powder.
10-pounder Parrott Rifle
In January of 1864 the M1841 6-pounder field guns were replaced with M1857 Light 12-pounder field guns, commonly called Napoleons. Also, the 12-pounder field howitzers were replaced by M1863 3 inch (10-pounder) Parrott rifles. The 12-pounder Napoleon was a smoothbore gun developed in France and named after Napoleon III who was the Emperor of France at the time. The Napoleon was called the "workhorse" of the Civil War artillery due to it's effectiveness up close against infantry and it's long range capabilities. The Parrott Rifle was designed by Robert Parrott. The gun was not the best rifled gun at the time but it was inexpensive to make and reasonably accurate. The Confederate government even went as far as to copy the design and produce their own. Parrott rifles are easily recognized by the iron band around the breech. The band greatly increased the strength of the breech.
3-Inch Ordnance Rifle
In 1855 the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle was developed by John Griffin. The majority of these weapons were manufactured at the Phoenix Iron Company in Phoenixville, Penn. The Ordnance rifle has a very distinctive look. Its no nonsense look of sleek lines and no external decoration make it easy to identify. These weapons were sturdy, accurate and superior to the 10-pound Parrott Rifle. The Federal Army purchased over 1,000 of this model during the war.